The Living Thing / Notebooks :

Audio libraries, esp for music

Audio frameworks, audio musical domain-specific-languages

Kaspa König:

Disco ears by Kaspar König

Nothing sounds quite right? Roll your own audio! Emphasis here is on quickly protoyping things; What's the fastest way to try a new algorithm, etc. Good enough for installations, not necessarily for shipping to punters. (Some here are potentially production-grade, though, e.g. Juce.)


Audio-specific programming languages. Why do people invent new DSLs for audio? This is a terrible idea. Anyway, there are some.

tl;dr If you must use an audio DSL, Csound might not be hip, but it's the one that avoids the more horrible pathologies of its bitrotten competitors. You'll miss some sequencing capabilities of supercollider, but not the debugging experience, or the inconvenient GPL licensing. Possibly overtone could get you there, if you want a more maintained language? Licensing is still tricky though.


Supercollider, dealt with elsewhere is an audio application and programming language. It has some hard-to-find features, such as

It has a small but committed community, and doesn't require extortionate licensing fees as an open-source project. Unfortunately it is purely GPL'd, which makes it difficult to release real software using it or put it on iphones etc. Supercollider's tasty language features sound great, but they are nearly unusable because of the obscure and buggy nature of the language they are embedded in. Having used this language extensively, I feel qualified to recommend against it; It has fame and regard because it really was the best in the field in 2002; But it's missing the bulk of the progress since 2002 that mainstream languages have taken for granted.

Also, it's falling gradually apart. Supercollider rootbound by a frozen and confusing chaos of early design decisions that make the sequencing unreliable and inflexible, state-management an irritating hack, and the ecosystem a jungle of different partial workarounds. Modern functional reactive programming has honed a lot of the design patterns here, but that revolution kicked off after supercollider froze.

However, because of its modular structure, you can use the synthesis part of supercollider, scsynth, which is pretty good, with some other languages than the ricketty front-end, sclang. These are all IIRC discussed on my main supercollider page, but listed here to save you and I both a click.


The archetypal hipster FRP language, clojure, has a functional composition library to work around supercollider's sclang pathologies, called overtone.


Thanks be the excellent Alex McClean for Tidal, which still, IMO, does not get sequencing right, but does good at getting a subset of sequencing sensible. See Tidal.


Foxdot is a great hack, even though it's not my own preferred style. Discussed under art python.


supercolliderjs is a pragmatic workaround for sclang oddities from one of the supercollider core developers. The alternative means of javascript audio.


Csound is another supercollider competitor with more open licensing, and more sustained development. It's useful enough that it has its own page. The especially good features are that it's small, liberally licensed, and designed for clean foreign function interfaces, and thus it works seamlessly with other languages, unlike supercollider which eschewed that by design.


chuck is a recent competitor to supercollider; still not that actively developed, surely in part because their source-management is AFAICT innocent of all innovations in collaborative source code since the 90s, so contributing is too tedious for anyone to bother. Get it to together and get a public github URL, Princeton hermits.


ReaJS is a plugin library from Reaper DAW that allows custom VST design using their weird custom language. cul de sac.

Audio libraries for mainstream programming languages

Wait what? You can just use a normal programming language with a lovely IDE and a sensible debugger, and still make music?


Graphical dataflow programming languages. A specific kind of DSL, with a visual function graph interpretation.

For the record, I hate programming using visual dataflow, although I do like visualizing my programs this way. The patchers that offer only a GUI workflow are arse-backwards for my work process, forcing you to click a million times to do every simple thing. But they are famous, and seem simple to the sort of people who prefer clicking on 100 buttons instead of tapping 100 keys. These are the same kind of people who will drive their cars until the rims are on the road rather than take half an hour to pump up the tyres.

Some of the patchers avoid this - faust, and puredata (the latter is is pure patcher per default, but you can persuade it). Also supercollider and chuck are usually classed as patchers, but AFAICT patching style visualisation is broken for both these, so I don't know what's going on in this world anymore. Aside: this is being mainstreamed slightly outside of audio by projects like Luna, which approach pure functional languages in this way. Well, Haskell at least.

There is a giant hub of patcher enthusiasts at patchstorage.


MrsWatson is incredibly useful: given a VST, a VST preset and a MIDI and/or audio file, it will render the output of said VST. Command-line. Open-source.