A lot of ideas here. See the overview in Kris De Decker, How to Build a Low Tech Internet (although they do not mean low tech so much as cheap/easy tech).
Connects with sneakernets via drive by netowrking and data mules.
Smartphone mesh networks
Everyone talks about this but I am not aware of many implementation. Famously Bridgefy uses bluetooth to mesh-network devices over bluetooth, as seen in the Hong Kong 2019 protests.
Others off-the-shelf mesh systems must exist, but the only ones I am aware of are special-purpose networks built for one-off projects.
F4HDK, Build a Long-Distance Data Network Using Ham Radio:
Packet Radio (NPR), which I chose to publish under my call sign, F4HDK, as a nom de plume. It supports today’s de facto universal standard of communication—the Internet’s IPv4—and allows data to be transmitted at up to 500 kilobits per second on the popular 70-centimeter UHF ham radio band. […] it is still faster than the 1.2 kb/s normally used by AX.25 links, and the 70-cm band permits long-distance links even when obstructions prevent line-of-sight transmissions.
DIY wireless antenna shootout.
Letgality of accessing spectrum
I am not an expert in the legality of these things. Research before trying.
quiet and its browser version quiet.js send data over the air via the sound card. Here is a detailed DIY for you yourself to try.
Butler, Jane. 2013. Wireless networking in the developing world [a practical guide to planning and building low-cost telecommunications infrastructure. S.l.: s.n.
Hanspach, Michael, and Michael Goetz. 2013. “On Covert Acoustical Mesh Networks in Air.” Journal of Communications 8 (11): 758–67. https://doi.org/10.12720/jcm.8.11.758-767.